- Where did measles originally come from?
- Why does Pakistan still have polio?
- Where is Polio most commonly found?
- What was the average life expectancy in 2000?
- How was polio spread in the 1950s?
- How did people catch polio?
- What was the mortality rate of measles in 1960?
- What was the mortality rate of measles before vaccine?
- What is the oldest vaccine?
- What countries still have polio 2020?
- What has increased life expectancy?
- How many cases of polio are there in 2019?
- Who created the polio virus?
- Was Polio on the decline before the vaccine?
- Does polio still exist 2020?
- What animal did polio come from?
- Is measles airborne or droplet?
- Why is polio still a threat in some countries?
- What was the death rate of polio?
- What was the life expectancy before vaccinations?
- When did they find a vaccine for polio?
Where did measles originally come from?
Measles, caused by measles virus (MeV), is a common infection in children.
MeV is a member of the genus Morbillivirus and is most closely related to rinderpest virus (RPV), which is a pathogen of cattle.
MeV is thought to have evolved in an environment where cattle and humans lived in close proximity..
Why does Pakistan still have polio?
Recent government efforts By 2015, new cases of polio had dropped by 70% as compared to 2014, due to increased vaccination in parts of the northwest Pakistan that had previously been under the control of militants. These areas were secured by Pakistani forces in the Zarb-e-Azb Campaign against Taliban militants.
Where is Polio most commonly found?
Polio remains endemic in two countries Afghanistan and Pakistan.
What was the average life expectancy in 2000?
76.9 yearsIn 2000 the overall expectation of life at birth was 76.9 years, representing an increase of 0.2 years from life expectancy in 1999. Between 1999 and 2000, life expectancy increased for both males and females and for both the white and black populations.
How was polio spread in the 1950s?
Transmitted primarily via feces but also through airborne droplets from person to person, polio took six to 20 days to incubate and remained contagious for up to two weeks after.
How did people catch polio?
Poliovirus can be transmitted through direct contact with someone infected with the virus or, less commonly, through contaminated food and water. People carrying the poliovirus can spread the virus for weeks in their feces. People who have the virus but don’t have symptoms can pass the virus to others.
What was the mortality rate of measles in 1960?
From 1956 to 1960, an average of 450 measles-related deaths were reported each year (∼1 death/ 1000 reported cases), compared with an average of 5300 measles-related deaths during 1912–1916 (26 deaths/ 1000 reported cases) .
What was the mortality rate of measles before vaccine?
It is one of the leading vaccine-preventable disease causes of death. In 1980, 2.6 million people died of it, and in 1990, 545,000 died; by 2014, global vaccination programs had reduced the number of deaths from measles to 73,000.
What is the oldest vaccine?
The smallpox vaccine was the first vaccine to be developed against a contagious disease. In 1796, the British doctor Edward Jenner demonstrated that an infection with the relatively mild cowpox virus conferred immunity against the deadly smallpox virus.
What countries still have polio 2020?
Our Progress Against Polio Only three polio-endemic countries (countries that have never interrupted the transmission of wild poliovirus) remain—Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Without our polio eradication efforts, more than 17 million people who are currently healthy would have been paralyzed by the virus.
What has increased life expectancy?
During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, an increase in life expectancy was driven mainly by improvements in sanitation, housing, and education, causing a steady decline in early and mid-life mortality, which was chiefly due to infections.
How many cases of polio are there in 2019?
To date, there have been 94 wild poliovirus cases reported in 2019, compared to 33 in all of 2018. In addition, several African nations reported single cases of vaccine-derived polio: Chad, Benin, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Ethiopia, Togo, and Zambia.
Who created the polio virus?
Jonas Salk (1914–1995) became a national hero when he allayed the fear of the dreaded disease with his polio vaccine, approved in 1955. Although it was the first polio vaccine, it was not to be the last; Albert Bruce Sabin (1906–1993) introduced an oral vaccine in the United States in the 1960s that replaced Salk’s.
Was Polio on the decline before the vaccine?
Polio infections peaked in the United States in 1952, with more than 21,000 paralytic cases. Following introduction of effective vaccines in 1955 (inactivated polio vaccine, IPV) and 1961 (oral poliovirus vaccine, OPV), polio incidence declined rapidly.
Does polio still exist 2020?
Polio does still exist, although polio cases have decreased by over 99% since 1988, from an estimated more than 350 000 cases to 22 reported cases in 2017. This reduction is the result of the global effort to eradicate the disease.
What animal did polio come from?
The discovery by Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper in 1908 that polio was caused by a virus, a discovery made by inoculating macaque monkeys with an extract of nervous tissue from polio victims that was shown to be free of other infectious agents.
Is measles airborne or droplet?
Measles is one of the most contagious of all infectious diseases; up to 9 out of 10 susceptible persons with close contact to a measles patient will develop measles. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with infectious droplets or by airborne spread when an infected person breathes, coughs, or sneezes.
Why is polio still a threat in some countries?
This is referred to as circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) and it occurs in regions where there is low vaccination coverage, meaning many people are susceptible to the virus or not fully immune. Poor sanitary conditions such as contaminated water sources and inadequate sewage systems also fuel its spread.
What was the death rate of polio?
The mortality rate for acute paralytic polio ranges from 5–15%. The paralysis can progress for up to one week. Permanent weakness is observed in two-thirds of patients with paralytic poliomyelitis.
What was the life expectancy before vaccinations?
People died painfully, mostly in infancy or childhood, primarily from diseases such as tuberculosis, pleurisy, typhus, tonsillitis, cholera and dysentery. With a lack of medical understanding of these ailments, a common treatment was bloodletting. The average lifespan at the time was around 35 years.
When did they find a vaccine for polio?
Polio vaccine has been available since 1955. The inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was available first, given as a shot, in 1955. A more convenient form, called oral polio vaccine (OPV), was given as liquid drops via the mouth. It was developed in 1961.